The Healing Process: Immune Response and the Redox Signaling Molecule

Wholeness Is – All Things are Connected

The Healing Process is as much an unfolding and revelation of what is already whole and holy, namely Life, as it is a mending to make whole what has become partial, fragmented and isolated from the whole, if only in consciousness and in perception.  The reality is oneness.  All things are connected and cannot be otherwise disconnected, anymore than ripples on the surface of a pond created by two or more pebbles thrown in separate places into the pond can be separated.  The ripples can be seen as vibrational waves connecting all forms of life afloat in cosmic space.  “Pluck a flower and disturb a star.”

Life is Spirit and Spirit is present everywhere as the Presence of Love.  Love is all and all is love, and the essence of Love is Oneness.  Therefore, as we give consideration to the human immune system, I would invite you to begin by seeing all of Life as ONE and as the manifestation and action of Love . . . and Love does not attack Love.

In the medical model of the immune system, as you are about to see in these next video clips, as well as in the passage from Dr. Gary Samuelson’s booklet The Science of Healing Revealed – New Insights into Redox Signaling, Life’s intricate parts are pitted against one another in a battle over the flesh-and-blood terrain of the whole organism of our physical bodies.  Pathogens are characterized as “invaders” while anti-bodies as “killer cells” bent on destroying the invaders as “enemies” to the self whom they serve at all costs.  This is all part of the drama Louis Pasteur’s germ theory has given rise to in the paranoid and morbid imagination of human hearts and minds.  This mind-set has only weakened our natural immunity by instilling fear in our hearts.  Fear shuts down our immune system.

In reality, there is nothing to fear, as nothing is “wrong.”  Everything matters.  Pathogens have as much right to existence as human beings.  They are part of the Creative Process in which they play an essential role.  What, for instance, would happen to cadavers if pathogens didn’t break them down and return them to the dust from which they were formed?  That’s their job, and if they find sick and dying cells while passing through our bodies, it is their job to take them out and scavenge the debris. They would not do so if they found no sick and dying cells, an unlikely occasion considering the oxidative stress under which our body-cells exist and operate on a daily basis.  It’s the law of the survival of the fittest at work that is operative throughout the natural world.

So, keep this in mind as we take a look at how the immune system deals with non-self visitors through the eyes of traditional medicine with its “germ-theory” mind-set that has dominated our consciousness during the last century, a mind-set that forms the basis of our so-called “healthcare system” today, which would be more accurately called a “disease management” system. Enjoy and be enlightened by what follows, remembering to see it all from a larger perspective of the Whole.

Video links:  “T” Cells and the Immune System       White Blood Cells at Work     Clonal Selection during strep infection

Comment on the video clips: Medical overlay aside, it is fascinating to see the infinite microcosm at work in such detail within our bodies, and it is all governed and directed by the law of resonance and attraction.  I see “T” cells and white blood cells, for instance, absorbing pathogens as “grist for the mill,” thereby reclaiming and incorporating their substance and energy back into the functional whole, transforming and transmuting them in the process.  Perhaps “T” cells would more accurately be called “Transmuting cells” rather then “killer cells.” Keeping this perspective in mind, let’s see what Dr. Samuelson has to say about the immune system and the Redox Signaling Molecule.

Immune System’s Response to a Threat

The immune system in higher vertebrates is complex and highlydeveloped and yet it is built around principles that exist in even the most primitive species and plants (plants really do have an immune system). The innate immune response in plants and in lower and higher animals depends on a redox signaling process (messengers of distress) to help the organism identify and destroy its enemies. The principle is simple: if anything foreign causes enough damage to result in acute oxidative stress, as explained, then it is an enemy.

It is convenient that the redox messengers (the oxidants that signal that damage has occurred) are also the most potent oxidative ammunition available with which to load the cannons and kill the enemy. The presence of all these harmful oxidants, though, requires that these forms of life produce a complement of antioxidants with the ability to neutralize any stray oxidants before they can cause damage to the organism itself. The antioxidants found in plants, by the way, are not necessarily the same as those used in higher life forms. Eating a berry that has plant antioxidants will not generally supplement the native antioxidants utilized inside your cells. Plant antioxidants, however, can be helpful as they can make it into your blood and help reduce the stray oxidants there. Note that some antioxidants, such as vitamin-C, are indeed able to be absorbed by tissues.

In humans and higher vertebrates, there are a variety of antioxidants and “clean-up-crew” enzymes that clean up the toxic mess once the battle is over. In these higher animals, there also exists an intricate adaptive immune system that can use the remaining scraps from the battle to identify, tag, and keep a list of harmful foreign invaders. This allows a quicker and more specific immune response, overall, and thus a higher survival rate. One drawback of this improved immune system, none-the-less, is that friendly and inert objects can mistakenly be identified as enemies.

One powerful advantage that the redox signaling system offers is aclear identification that the battle has been won. When the oxidative stress condition subsides, it is a sign that the battle is over and is a signal to start rebuilding. In the process of regenerating the lost tissues, these redox-induced messengers are used again to help the newly forming tissues signal that they need oxygen and nutrients. These messengers then spur on the vascular growth needed to feed these new tissues.  The healing process is beautifully simple in principle and amazingly complex in its application. Cells must be able to identify when they are in distress and then call up the appropriate action to correct the situation. Stress leads to imbalance which in turn leads to the action needed to reestablish balance. The ability to maintain balance is an essential ingredient of life.

Raspberries – Life’s perfection in an imperfect world

Of course, we do not live in a perfect world and our bodies are sometimes less than capable of handling the insults constantly being slung at them by our toxic mind-made world of chemicals, estrogenic plastics, and insecticides in our foods.  Knowing this perhaps, Mother Nature has provided us with perfect foods that have built-in immune-system support nutrients.  The humble red raspberry contains “ellagic acid” which is anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, making it a natural anti-biotic.

Another anti-pathogen can be found within the seed of the grapefruit, put there, no doubt, by Mother Nature to protect the germ in the seed from destruction by fungi and other pathogens.  It’s a very bitter oil, as you know if you’ve ever bit into a grapefruit seed. The oil has been extracted and made available in various “citracidal” preparations, such as Triguard Plus ($15 plus postage).  It is anti bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-yeast and effective against some 27 different pathogens.  It is completely harmless to the body cells, just don’t get it in your eyes as it will burn.

Check out the links below for an enlightening presentation of the humble raspberry and of ellagic acid, also available in capsule form from the company who brings you these video clips.  Enjoy, and I’ll see you next blog post! Until then,Here’s to your health, healing and vitality!

Dr. Anthony Palombo

Email me at to order Triguard Plus.

Video clips:  The Raspberry and Ellagic Acid Part 1,   Part 2,  Part 3

The Healing Process: Role of the Immune System, Part 1 page 2


Tony's picture 2 from PeggyWe saw how Dr. Royal Lee discovered protomorphogens in our last post.  In this post we will look at some of the other important players at the turn of the 20th Century who pioneered health-based healthcare as opposed to traditional medicine’s disease-based healthcare. 

At the same time Dr. Royal Lee was developing his theory of protomorphogens, Antoine Bechamp (1816-1908), a French Biologist, was working on a similar theory using a different name for these nuclear mineral proteins. In Dr. Sharon Rabb‘s words: 

Antoine  Bechamp was the most notable of scientists working along the same lines as Dr. Lee. Bechamp was a contemporary (and adversary) of Louis Pasteur. Bechamp’s theory, later confirmed by other scientists, was that “disease” is not produced primarily by invading bacteria but is actually perpetuated in an unhealthy, unbalanced body by the body’s own cells. The cells themselves produce pathogens like bacteria, fungi, and viruses instead of normal healthy cells. The theory also stated that all chronic and infectious illnesses have a microbial component not currently recognized by orthodox medicine. “Non-self” pathogens may provide a template for illness, but healthy individuals do not succumb. The existing toxic internal environment allows the disease to manifest. One does not really “catch” a cold — a cold is produced due to an imbalanced, toxic and malnourished environment. (underscores mine)

 Bechamp saw what he termed “mycrozymas” in the protoplasm of living cells and considered them to be the fundamental unit of living tissue (Lee’s PMGs). Bechamp disputed the “germ theory” and stated that the cause of disease was internal dysfunction not an external invasion. Invading pathogens could only cause illness in an unhealthy body by acting as a template to dividing cells. Pasteur, near the end of his life, confirmed Bechamp’s theories; however, traditional medicine was already firmly entrenched in the “germ theory” model.  (underscore mine)

This is unbelievable but very typical behavior on the part of medicine and the drug industry who can’t wait for the final results of extremely costly research to get a pill out on the market to enhance their bottom line.  Yet they do it notoriously and repeatedly with half-baked research and premature conclusions, which too many times results in deadly side effects and recall of the medicine.

As a side note, but very pertinent to how we got pointed in the wrong direction, here’s a telling piece of history from the introduction of R.B. Pearson’s book THE DREAM AND LIE OF LOUIS PASTEUR:

 Bechamp was one of France’s most prominent and active researchers and biologists. He taught in universities and medical schools, and published widely on cell biology, disease, botany and related subjects. His would probably be a household name today if it wasn’t for the activities of one Louis Pasteur, whom history has treated very kindly indeed, considering his fake science, his tendency to steal ideas (mainly from Bechamp), falsify experimental data, and in general make claims which had no basis in fact.

I’m not running off at the mouth by saying the above. It’s all quite well documented – Bechamp and Pasteur were both members of the French Academy of Sciences, and the papers they submitted, and their correspondance, both to each other and to other people, were all recorded. Even their verbal exchanges survive in the minutes of the meetings.

To cut a long story short, and it is a long story, Pasteur basically dug up the germ theory of disease and put his name on it. It wasn’t a new idea, although he claimed to have “discovered” germs all the same. The concept had actually been outlined by other people many years before, but of course, the whole idea is wrong anyway, so it hardly matters who thought of it first. In a few years, the germ theory of disease will be out there with the flat earth theory where it belongs. . . .  Another good book is Pasteur Exposed, written by Ethel Hume and first published in 1923, which goes into all the details of exactly how Bechamp’s ideas were twisted beyond recognition by Pasteur. None of this would matter a toss, of course, except for the minor point that western chemistry-based medicine is built on a foundation of unquestioning “Pasteurism”. (underscore mine)

At the same time, Dr. Royal Rife (1888 – 1971), pathologist and bacteriologist, was developing the first 100% sure cure for cancer in the 1920’s.  Here’s a piece of his story as told by Dr. Sharon Rabb:

Royal Rife, a friend of Dr. Lee, believed as did Bechamp in the theory of pleomorphism — the ability of a microorganism to change form in a living system. In other words, bacteria could change into a fungus or virus or vice versa. He also believed that the human body could produce these microorganisms instead of normal healthy cells. Rife invented a very powerful light microscope where he could see them “pleomorph”. He also invented a machine called the Rife machine which produced sound frequencies that “burst” specific microorganisms. He was able to see these pathogens, find the “resonant frequency” of the specific organism and produce the sound frequency–thus causing the organism (and it only) to self destruct. Rife used this machine to “terminate” cancer cells in infected individuals in the middle 1900’s. Several books have been written by Barry Lyons about Rife’s story, including The Cancer Cure that Worked. Rife was discredited and was finally run out of the country, a destitute man.

His lab and all of his equipment was burned to the ground by the medical society in Southern California.  His work was not to resurface again until the late 1990’s, thanks to the viral capacity of the internet to spread the word before anybody could stop it.  Rife machines are available and being used today in private homes and in alternative healthcare centers everywhere. For a full ten minute account of Dr. Rife’s story, click on this YouTube link: or copy and paste it in your web browser.  To view a picture of Royal Rife and his amazing electron Universal Microscope, along with another rendition of his story, click this link:

Another maverick scientist who agreed with the concept of pleomorphism was Gaston Naessens (1924). He developed the somatoscope in the late 1940s with a resolution of 150 angstroms. With the use of this scope, he identified the PMG (or somatid, or mycrozyma) and actually observed various microbes change forms to other pathogens. He clearly demonstrated the 16 stages of the “somatid cycle,” thus affirming that disease is not an issue of external invasion but an issue of weakened immune capacity. (The 16 stages show how single cells can “pleomorph” or change into other different microorganisms.)

To recap what went before and close this chapter. . . 

“. . . Dr. Lee refined the theories of Bechamp, Rife, Naessens and others and put them to practical use in formulating protomorphogens for virtually every tissue type. These PMGs have the potential to rebuild every organ and gland in the body. . . .   By providing the genetic material through the PMG, the body is able to “jump-start” the healing process and use the blueprints to reprogram healthy cell division.”  (Dr. Sharon Rabb)

For help with your particular health issue and to order supplements with protomorphogens, call me for a personal consultation at my office  (337) 497-1850, or my cell phone (337) 802-5510.  Consultations range from $45 (20 min) to $65 (40 min) and are payable by credit card. 

Join me next week as we tell the stories of  the major actors in the immune system and the role of the redox signaling molecule in immune response.  Thank you for following my blog.  I trust you find the articles interesting, informative and entertaining.  Your comments are most welcome as I love hearing from my readers.  Until my next post, 

Here’s to your health and healing,

Dr. Anthony Palombo


The Healing Process: Role of the Immune System – Part I


    Here’s where our consideration of the Healing Process takes a turn away from the orthodox medical model and indoctrination and toward a more accurate understanding of the disease process : what causes it, where does it begin and how can it best be reversed by supporting the healing and re-building processes of the body. 

     Let us start with a recap of what we think we know about disease. Following Louis Pasteur’s “outside-in” thinking, medical science took off and developed on the basis of the theory that disease was brought into the body from the outside.  The “germ theory” gained popularity and soon we were developing antibiotics (literally, anti-life) to kill germs and pathogens of all kinds. We were given soaps, sprays and gels to sanitize ourselves and prevent the invasion of and contamination by these invaders.  And if we did get invaded, then we used antibiotics to “fight infection,” the body’s own natural way of dealing with harmful bacteria and viruses.  We even started “pasteurizing” our milk in an endeavor to kill the germs, only to kill the natural enzymes needed to digest the milk in the process.  Our blessed parents brought us up on whole milk we got from our cows and we gave our immune systems a good education on how to deal with sore throats (strep), boils (staph) and other symptoms of bacteria-fighting in our bodies, and we’re better off for it today.  The end result of all this waring against germs has been the adaptation of viruses and other pathogens to our powerful antibiotics and the appearance of super viruses and bacteria that are immune to our antibiotics, which has medical scientists deeply concerned.

Shortly after the time when Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was selling his theory to medicine and the general public, another theory was put forward by Dr. Royal Lee and a scientist by the name of Antoine Bechamp.  Other important players in this arena were the renowned Dr. Royal Rife and Gaston Naessen, whose stories we will visit in my post next week.

Born the same year Louis Pasteur passed away, Dr. Royal Lee (1895-1967), a dentist who believed and proved conclusively that the health of the teeth was directly proportionate to and reflected the health of the body, developed and worked with a nutritional approach to the reversal of disease and the restoration of health.  His “Protomorphogen” discovery helped us turn the corner in our search for the real cause of disease and a natural solution to the cure of disease and to healing.  Today he is honored as the “Father of Natural Vitamins.”  His line of wholefood nutritional supplements and his legacy are kept alive and well-preserved by Standard Process Laboratories in Palmyra, Wisconsin.  

In his own words: 

“One of the biggest tragedies of human civilization is the precedence of chemical therapy over nutrition. It’s the substitution of artificial therapy over natural, of poisons over food, in which we are feeding people poisons trying to correct the reactions of starvation. You all know how ridiculous that it. But you all know how widely it’s being done.” Dr. Royal Lee, 1935

In a nutshell, here is the theory:  There are mineral protein essences secreted by the cells that carry the blueprint for cellular regulation and growth.  These “protomorphogens,” as Dr. Lee called them, help grow new and healthy cells and even help repair and rebuild cells that are damaged.  By enhancing the integrity of the body cells, invading pathogens (bacteria and viruses) are kept at bay.  They only attack sick and weak cells.  In Dr. Lee’s own words:

 A protomorphogen is a cell secretion given off by all living cells at all times in minute amounts that promotes the synthesis of protein for cell repair and cell maintenance on the outside of the cell wall, after which it is absorbed by the cell. Protomorphogens are chromosome end products, made in the cell nucleus, probably the agents by which the basic functions of the chromosome are exercised. All living proteins carry a protomorphogen component by which the protein is made specific in nature, specific in causing organic reactions, specific in function, specific in its ability to act as an antigen in provoking immune reactions. All antigens may be antigenic by reason of accompanying protomorphogens, in some cases instead of being attached to a protein molecule, the protomorphogen may be attached to a lipoid or polysaccharide aggregate. When a protein has been separated from a protomorphogen, it is said to be denatured and is no longer fully capable of antigenic action; that is, cannot create an antibody specific to it in the circumstance of its injection into an animal blood stream.

Since no cell can grow or maintain itself unless protomorphogens, as secreted by itself, are available in the pericellular [outside and around the cell] fluids, it is obvious that here we have the possible biological growth regulator. Suppose that the immune-body producing mechanism, heretofore looked upon only as a defense against invading organisms (cells) from the outside, were to be found to exert the same controlling action on every organ and cell of the body, we would have the answer to the long-sought questions of why animal organs and living creatures in general were able to regulate their cell growth exactly according to a well-ordered plan.

 We find, on investigation, that there is just such a reaction of the immune body producing mechanism (the reticuloendothelial system) and it has been described under the general designation of “Natural Tissue Antibody” (NTA).


Protomorphogens are in reality mineral chains whose sequencing determine the amino acid (protein) structure of individual cell types. In living tissues these minerals are organically bound and accompanied by enzymes. . . .

. . . Dr. Lee refined the theories of Bechamp, Rife, Naessens and others and put them to practical use in formulating protomorphogens for virtually every tissue type. These PMGs have the potential to rebuild every organ and gland in the body. The concentration gradient both inside and outside the cell regulate this growth. The “health” of the cell regulates both the concentration gradient and “health” of the protomorphogen. The concentration and health of the protomorphogen also regulates the immune system in forming natural tissue antibodies (NTA). If an excess of PMGs accumulate outside the cell, normal cell division stops and an excess of autoimmune factor (NTA) can cause damage to the cell. The PMGs in living systems are “wrapped” in lipoid layers because of their potential toxicity to a living system. This is called “hypersensitivity” in immunological terms. The lipoid “wrapping” can be either incomplete or damaged in disease or malnutrition states.

Because of hypersensitivity, Lee chose not to use human genetic material in formulating his supplements – but rather to use animal tissue which would be taken orally. The PMGs are processed to be absorbed through the GI tract intact. The animal kingdom is removed from the human so that hypersensitivity is not a large issue. By providing the genetic material through the PMG, the body is able to “jump-start” the healing process and use the blueprints to reprogram healthy cell division  (underscore mine). Dr. Lee believed that every disease produced an autoimmune component which through the process of inflammation prevented normal cell division and caused most of the damage. This fact is being recognized by the medical profession more frequently in various illnesses.

Protomorphogens (PMGs) have two major functions: Control healthy cell growth and  Regulate immunity

Our own PMGs inhibit cell division. However, when taken orally in pill form (from other mammals), PMGs stimulate normal cell division and reduce the autoimmune component by reducing excessive amounts of the natural tissue antibodies. They stimulate the organ to regenerate new healthy tissue by supplying the blueprints or by “jump starting” the organ to manufacture more of its own PMG.

PMGs are taken from specific organs of other mammals. In supplying extracts of the specific organ to the organ that is diseased, we can influence the local nutrient environment of those particular cells. This increases the activity of the tissue which then increases the secretion of PMGs so that the net effect is the concentration of PMG is balanced. The tissue of the organ begins to grow and regenerate normal healthy cells and thus helps to reestablish normal growth patterns with control. . . .

. . . The theory of protomorphogens is fundamentally what stem cell research is about. 

For product information and to start benefiting from protomorphogen supplementation, simply contact me by email at 

See you next week for another installation on the role of the Immune System in the Healing Process.  We will talk about other important players at the turn of the 20th Century who pioneered health-based healthcare as opposed to disease-based medicine.  

To your health,

Dr. Anthony Palombo 



The Healing Process: Role of the Redox Signaling Molecule

Redox Regulation of the Healing Process – New Science

We have come to the crux of our considerations around the Healing Process.  In this post we will see exactly how the healing process works and what players are involved.  Again, Dr. Gary Samuelson will tell the story in his own easy-to-read words.  We will start with two video clips: one of the process called “Covalent Bonding” and the other on how free radicals and antioxidants work in order to help us better understand how “free radicals” (oxidants) do their damage and how the antioxidants neutralize and disarm them by a simple exchange of electrons between “oxidants” (electron donors ) and “reductants” (electron acceptors).  At the end of the day, restoration of balance is the goal of the healing process, as we shall see, and the “villains” of the free radicals turn out to be essential players in the process of maintaining homeostasis.  This, I promise, will be a fascinating read.  Enjoy!  (Newcomers to my blog would enjoy reading the previous posts in this series on The Healing Process for background information.)

Video clips: Covalent Bonding (4:32), Free Radicals vs Antioxidants  (4:30)

Redox Regulation of the Healing Processes-New Science

Emerging science from the past five years has solidly established that the chemical balance of small reactive redox messengers is essential to the healing process and the regulation of the immune system. These small reactive “redox” molecules participate in the same homeostatic balancing act that is used to balance the proper amount of the various proteins inside the cell (as we already have discussed). These redoxmessengers are constantly being produced, mostly by the mitochondria in the cells, and then constantly being eliminated at the same rate by a variety of protective enzymes (generally called antioxidants“) that are strategically stationed inside and outside of the cells.

Let us more closely examine these reactive “redoxmessengers for a minute. They are made from simple rearrangements of the atoms in H20, NaGI and N2 and are put together by special molecular complexes in the cell. Some examples of redox signaling molecules are H202, H02, HOCI and NO. About half of the redox messengers can be categorized as oxidantsand the other half, in fairness, can be categorized as “reductants.”  “Reductants” is a contrived nickname, the official name being energetic “electron acceptors.Oxidants, incidentally, can also be referred to as energetic “electron donors” in the same sense.

Not much is said about “Reductants” in the literature. In fact this nickname was just fashioned to be able to talk about this group of electron acceptors in this booklet. The basic concept, however, is very familiar to chemists and physicists. The laws of conservation of charge, mass and energy dictate that every time an oxidant is made from a neutral solution, a reductant or combination of reductants must concurrently be made to counterbalance it. The electron acceptors must balance out the electron donors. The ability of the resulting molecules to oxidize or reduce the molecules in their environment is referred to as the “redox” potential, a key player and motivator for all of the chemical reactions that take place in nature.

The name “redoxitself comes from the ability of these messengers to “REDuceand/or “OXidizemolecules in their environment. Reduction and oxidation are chemical terms that relate to the potential that the molecules have to “give away(oxidize) or accept(reduce) electrons to and from other molecules in their environment. As mentioned, all chemical reactions taking place in the cell depend on this redox potential in order to happen. Redox messengers have the ability to change the redox potential of their environment, thereby altering the chemical reactions that take place. Strong reductants and oxidants can both be harmful and destructive to the cell if they are allowed to wander around at will.

The oxidants, in particular, have made a really bad name for themselves; several of them are free radicals that have high energy, unpaired electrons that will blow apart whatever they come into contact with (like tiny molecular cannons). Oxidants will damage DNA, blow holes in cellular membranes, destroy important proteins, etc. The reductants are also hazardous, they will grab electrons away from molecules (with the ferocity of small molecular sharks), thereby causing destruction. To be perfectly clear, reductants are not antioxidants. Reductants are simply the chemical counterparts of oxidants (much like acids and bases). Antioxidants, on the other hand, are a class of much larger organic molecules produced by genetic coding that act as catalysts capable of facilitating the reverse chemical processes needed to ultimately untie” and neutralize both the oxidants and the reductants. Antioxidant cycles require both oxidants and reductants in order to work correctly.

Let us focus on the antioxidants for a minute. The antioxidants were historically considered as the heroes of the cell because they broke down the harmful oxidants by pulling them in and neutralizing them together with reductants, leaving just common harmless sea-water molecules in their wake. Over an antioxidant cycle (some of which are complex multi-step processes) the oxidants and reductants are neutralized [view clip], however the antioxidant itself remains unchanged, ready to do it all over again to the next set of oxidants and reductants. The antioxidant in this sense is a catalyst that speeds up the neutralization of oxidants with reductants and yet of itself remains unchanged. You can think of an antioxidant as a black box: reactive and potentially dangerous oxidants and reductants go into the box and harmless neutral sea-water molecules come out.

Ironically, the oxidants (that historically have been thought to be the villains) are now seen as central players to the healthy function of the cells. We have recently learned that we would not be able to live without either the reactive oxidants or the reductants. The truth be told, these tiny reactive molecules play an absolutely essential messenger role in our cells and tissues [my underscore]. The most critical aspect of healthy redox-messenger balance is in that the oxidants and reductants must be produced and eliminated in perfectly-balanced and equal portions. As long as there are equal portions of oxidants and reductants in the interior or exterior of the cell, the antioxidants can readily neutralize them both as fast as they are created. As discussed, the antioxidants need equal portions of oxidants and reductants in order to function, in the case of Glutathione (an abundant antioxidant made in our cells). The large mouth of the relatively huge antioxidant molecule lures in a reductant (that is electron hungryand then lures in an oxidant (that has an energetic electron to donate) and then pulls them both together into the “active site” in the middle. At the active site, the reductant and oxidant are combined together, neutralizing them both. The resulting harmless molecules float away.  The antioxidant is then free to do it all again. If there is an ample supply of reductants and oxidants in the neighborhood, one antioxidant molecule can typically neutralize tens of millions of oxidant molecules every second, as measured in the lab.  [Emphasis and underscores mine]

This was a eye-opener for me when I first read it, and I believe it is crucial to a better understanding of homeostasis.  There are no “good” and “bad” players in this microcosm of the biological universe that comprises our bodies.  There’s only “appropriate” and “inappropriate” based on place and timing, balance and imbalance.  To quote a poet friend and colleague, “Nothing is wrong.  Everything matters.”  

The antioxidants are purposefully manufactured, sent to and positioned around the areas of the cell, such as the nucleus, that are vulnerable to oxidative damage. As equal portions of oxidants and reductants approach these protected areas, the antioxidants standing guard around these areas pull them in and neutralize them both. The antioxidants are thus able to keep these potentially harmful reactive molecules away from protected areas and corral and use them for their own best purposes. Consequently, the immune system uses large amounts of such oxidants, along with strong demolition enzymes, as its weapon of choice against harmful invading bacteria and viruses. The foreign invaders do not even stand a chance against these potent weapons. After the invaders have been torn apart and destroyed by the enzymes and oxidants, the surrounding antioxidants standing guard and other enzymes clean up the mess, toxins and hazards.


The key to understanding how this redox balancing process helps the body heal itself comes when considering what happens when the cells become damaged or defective for some reason or another. There are thousands of different processes with thousands of different proteins taking place everywhere inside the cell. When something is not working right, how does the cell detect the damage? The answer lies in the fact that as the normal homeostatic balance that exists in healthy cells is disturbed, somewhere in the cell there is either a build-up or deficiency of the normal quantity of proteins. There is a high probability that this
ing imbalance will at some point make the metabolism of sugars less efficient. When this happens, the redox-messenger production in the mitochondria becomes unbalanced, producing many more oxidants than reductants or vice versa. In other words, the damage will ultimately manifest itself as a buildup of oxidants or reductants. This condition is called “oxidative stress” and is a real phenomenon seen (under the microscope) to occur in almost all defective or stressed cells (in both animals and plants).

An imbalance in the redox messengers, usually manifesting itself as oxidative stress, sends a clear signal that damage has occurred somewhere and that the cell is defective. The excess oxidants are not balanced by reductants and cannot be effectively neutralized by antioxidants. These oxidants end up causing even more damage to other parts of the cell. This clear signal for help causes the DNA to code for the “fixit crew” and cytokine messengers that are sent out to alert the immune system. If this imbalance (oxidative stress condition) is not corrected by the attempts of the fixit crew, the oxidants continue to build up. Then after about two hours, the fatally damaged cell starts a “programmed cell suicide” cascade (apoptosis) that will end up with the cell killing and dismantling itself. This is not a bad thing. Normal healthy neighboring cells will then be able to divide in order to fill in the vacancy. On the microscopic scale, this is essentially the healing process. [my underscore]

The oxidative stress condition in a stressed or damaged cell also causes the DNA to code for messengers to be sent to neighboring cells, advising them of its condition. Redox messengers can also be used as these intercellular messengers. If the damaged cell, such as those found in tumors, is not able to kill itself, then its neighboring healthy cells will send back “death domain” messengers as well as distress messengers to the immune system that will either cause the damaged cell to die or to be attacked by the immune system. This system is regularly used to detect and destroy practically all of the damaged and dysfunctional cells in the body. Remember, it only takes one undetected dysfunctional cell, out of the trillions that are successfully detected and killed, to start seeding an abnormal growth.”

This brings our series to a turning point.  The posts that will follow will look at the role of the immune system in healing and how this system is activated by the Redox Signaling Molecules.   View this video clip to prepare for the next consideration.

Clip:  The Healing Revolution – the Science Behind ASEA.

To your health and healing,

Dr. Tony Palombo

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